Extreme BP reducing having supplemental dosage of potassium regarding range out of 1900 to 4700 milligrams/d (49–122 mmol/d) might have been stated to bring about BP lowering of up to 2 so you can six mm hg to possess diastolic BP and you can 2 to 4 mm hg for systolic BP. the new higher variability ranging from overall performance reflects the newest variability seen in additional knowledge. as well, the result out-of potassium towards the BP try determined by pretreatment BP level; age; race; sex; comorbid conditions; intake out of salt, magnesium, calcium, and other ions; diet; exercise; weight; sorts of potassium used; concomitant medication; and you will lifetime of use. a list of new conclusions of all the meta-analyses to your outcomes of potassium on BP up until now are offered in the Profile step three.
Report about meta-analyses out of education investigating the fresh new blood pressure-lowering negative effects of potassium. 25–twenty eight SBP indicates systolic blood pressure levels; DBP, diastolic hypertension.
Regardless of if conflicting efficiency about your results of potassium supplementation to the BP had been said in the scientific studies, 34, thirty-five newer trials possess displayed results in keeping with that of the fresh meta-studies by Whelton and you may acquaintances twenty-six (Dining table II). Gu and you can coworkers thirty-six discovered that modest potassium supplementation (60 mmol KCl) removed to possess 12 months lead to a reduction in systolic BP, yet not diastolic BP, when you look at the an excellent Chinese population. Furthermore, Kawano and you may associates 37 noted one an excellent 4-times potassium supplementation months (during which 64 mmol/d off potassium received because slow-discharge KCl) led to small but tall decreases in the workplace, home, and you will 24-hr BP during the Japanese men. Braschi and you will acquaintances 38 then examined the effect regarding lower-serving potassium supplementation towards BP and discovered that 24 mmol/d off slow-release KCl administered for six weeks led to high decrease inside the imply arterial tension and diastolic BP for the match volunteers.
Components by which Potassium Lowers BP
The new homeostasis out-of sodium and you will potassium takes on an important role in endothelium-situated vasodilatation. 39 Salt storage reduces the synthesis of nitric oxide, https://datingranking.net/it/siti-scambisti/ an arteriolar vasodilator elaborated from the endothelial muscle, and you will escalates the plasma number of asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine, a keen endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide design. forty a diet full of potassium and increases inside the solution potassium, also from inside the physiological diversity, end up in endothelium-created vasodilatation from the hyperpolarizing this new endothelial phone because of pleasure of the salt pump and you may starting potassium avenues. 41 In addition, most other advised systems which potassium is also determine BP are natriuresis, modulation off baroreceptor susceptibility, reduced vasoconstrictive awareness so you’re able to norepinephrine and you may angiotensin II, increased serum and you may urinary kallikrein, increased sodium/potassium On Pase pastime, customization in DNA synthesis, and you can expansion for the vascular easy muscle and you may sympathetic nervous system tissue. 42, 43
Dietary Assistance to possess Potassium
Maintaining an adequate intake of dietary potassium (>90 mmol [3500 mg]/d) has been recommended for the primary prevention of hypertension by the JNC 7.13 The Institute of Medicine has recommended a sodium intake <65 mmol/d (3.8 g/d) and an increase in potassium to 120 mmol/d. 44 In 2006, the American Heart Association issued new guidelines suggesting an increase in potassium intake to 120 mmol/d (4.7 g/d), which is the level provided in the DASH diets in which all food is supplied. 14 The Canadian Hypertension Society recommends that the daily dietary intake of potassium should be ?60 mmol, since this intake has been associated with a reduced risk of stroke-related mortality. 45, 46 The most recent European Society of Hypertension guidelines also support an increased potassium intake based on the DASH diet. 18 In addition, the 2003 World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension statement recommends a diet high in fruits and vegetables, a reduction of dietary sodium intake, and increased dietary potassium intake for reducing the incidence of hypertension. 16 Some sources of high-potassium, low-sodium foods are listed in Table III. 47